Document Type



Medicine and Health Sciences


We examined 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the coding region of the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), among 382 European Americans (EAs) affected with substance dependence [alcohol dependence (AD) and/or drug dependence (DD)] and 338 EA healthy controls. These SNPs delineated two haplotype blocks. Genotype distributions for all SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls, but in cases, four SNPs in Block I and three SNPs in Block II showed deviation from HWE. Significant differences were found between cases and controls in allele and/or genotype frequencies for six SNPs in Block I and two SNPs in Block II. Association of SNP4 in Block I with DD (allele: P = 0.004), SNP5 in Block I with AD and DD (allele: P ≤ 0.005 for both) and two SNPs in Block II with AD (SNP11 genotype: P = 0.002; SNP12 genotype: P = 0.001) were significant after correction for multiple testing. Frequency distributions of haplotypes (constructed by five tag SNPs) differed significantly for cases and controls (P < 0.001 for both AD and DD). Logistic regression analyses confirmed the association between OPRM1 variants and substance dependence, when sex and age of subjects and alleles, genotypes, haplotypes or diplotypes of five tag SNPs were considered. Population structure analyses excluded population stratification artifact. Additional supporting evidence for association between OPRM1 and AD was obtained in a smaller Russian sample (247 cases and 100 controls). These findings suggest that OPRM1 intronic variants play a role in susceptibility to AD and DD in populations of European ancestry.


Hum Mol Genet. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 September 2. Published in final edited form as: Hum Mol Genet. 2006 March 15; 15(6): 807–819. Published online 2006 February 13. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddl024 PMCID: PMC3164878 NIHMSID: NIHMS317657