Document Type



Medicine and Health Sciences


Females experience poorer recovery after ischemic stroke compared to males, even after controlling for age and stroke severity. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by T regulatory cells and Th2 CD4+ helper T cells. In ischemic stroke, an excessive IL-10 response contributes to post-stroke immunosuppression, which worsens outcomes. However, it is unknown if sex differences exist in IL-10 levels after ischemic stroke. In this study, we found that higher levels of IL-10 were associated with poor acute and long-term outcomes after ischemic stroke in female patients but not in males. After controlling for confounders, IL-10 was not an independent predictor of functional outcomes. This suggests that higher serum IL-10 levels may reflect factors that interact with sex such as age and stroke severity.


Originally published in : Biol Sex Differ. 2015; 6: 17. Published online 2015 Oct 12. doi: 10.1186/s13293-015-0035-9 PMCID: PMC4601121 Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.