Medicine and Health Sciences
Noninvasive diagnosis, whether by sampling body fluids, body scans, or other technique, has the potential to simplify early cancer detection. A classic example is Pap smear screening, which has helped to reduce cervical cancer 75% over the last 50 years. No test is error-free; the real concern is sufficient accuracy combined with ease of use. This paper will discuss methods that measure gene expression or epigenetic markers in oral cells or saliva to diagnose oral and pharyngeal cancers, without requiring surgical biopsy. Evidence for lung and other distal cancer detection is also reviewed.
Adami, Alexander J., "Looking in the Mouth for Noninvasive Gene Expression-Based Methods to Detect Oral, Oropharyngeal, and Systemic Cancer" (2012). Articles - Research. 128.