Date of Completion

Spring 5-1-2016

Thesis Advisor(s)

Maryann Morris, Douglas Casa

Honors Major

Allied Health Sciences


Fluid consumption during exercise can be influenced by fluid vessel type and hydration knowledge, however athletes often are not given a choice of vessel and furthermore they are unaware of their individual fluid needs. The aim of this single-blind matched pairs laboratory study was to investigate if hydration vessel has an impact on water consumption volume and if athletes are aware of their total body fluid balance. Nineteen Division I male soccer athletes (age, 20 ± 1 year; height, 180 ± 7 cm; body mass, 78.68 ±7.39 kg) performed a standard 60 minute sweat electrolyte test in the heat and completed a hydration knowledge and strategy questionnaire afterwards. 10 participants consumed unlimited water from 1L Gatoradeäbottles typically used in practice (BTL), while 9 participants consumed unlimited water from Camelbakä bladder hidden above them in the ceiling, only with access to the straw (BLA). Testing was conducted in a controlled environmental chamber, ambient temperature was 29.68 ± 5.08°C, relative humidity 49.32 ± 10.65%, and WBGT 19.32 ± 4.43°C. Primary variables of interest included actual fluid consumed, perceived fluid consumed, actual sweat rate, and perceived sweat rate. Between group differences were analyzed using paired samples t-tests (a=0.05). There was no difference between BTL and BLA for amount of actual fluid consumed (p=0.879) actual fluid lost (p=0.712), perceived fluid consumed (p=0.321) or perceived fluid lost (p=0.607). Independent of group, perceived fluid consumption was 692±572mL and perceived sweat losses were 2244±1552mL while actual fluid consumption was 401.58±334.37mL and actual sweat losses were 1377.89±404.90mL. When groups were combined significant differences were found between perceived and actual volumes consumed (p=0.016), perceived and actual volumes lost (p=0.015), and actual volumes consumed and lost (p=0.000). Although there were no differences between the type of vessel in which fluid was administered BTL vs. BLA, NCAA Division I athletes severely overestimated both the amount of fluid they consumed and their sweat losses during 60 minutes of exercise in the heat. These findings suggest that improved education regarding individual fluid needs during exercise in the heat be implemented.