The first objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the percentages of fourth-grade students eligible for free lunch and fourth-grade NAEP reading scores for 21 Trial Urban Assessment Districts (TUDA). For the 2011 assessment year, the correlation was -0.79. For the 2013 year, the correlation (percentage of free lunch and reading scores) was higher, -0.87.
The second objective was to determine the correlation between a second predictor variable - mean household income - and fourth-grade NAEP reading scores for 21 TUDA districts tested in 2013. The correlation was moderately high, 0.70.
Smith, Stuart, "A SIXTH of the NATION: LARGE CITY READING SCORES WILL IMPROVE ONLY SLIGHTLY BY 2021" (2015). NERA Conference Proceedings 2015. 5.