Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Dr. Lindsay J. DiStefano, Dr. Robert A. Huggins, Dr. Rebecca L. Stearns

Field of Study



Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


The Influence of Head Cooling Combined with Various Cooling Modalities on Cooling Rate After Exercise in the Heat

Hyde JL, Pryor RR, Adams WM, Adams EL, Vandermark LW, Huggins RA, Stearns RL, Casa DJ: Korey Stringer Institute, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT

Context: Various body-cooling modalities after exercise or between exercise bouts have been shown to decrease body temperature. The addition of head cooling (HC) to other commonly used cooling modalities may aid in reducing thermal strain. Objective: To determine the efficacy of head cooling on rectal temperature (Tre) compared to commonly implemented cooling modalities. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen recreationally active individuals (mean±SD: male, n=7, female, n=7; age=25±4y; height=171±9cm; body mass=70.8±8.3kg; percent body fat=21.2±7.6%). Intervention: Participants completed six bouts of treadmill exercise (55.2±12.2min) in a hot environment (38.5±1.5°C, 37.5±7.6%RH) until one of the following occurred: Tre reached 39.75°C, 80 minutes of exercise, or the participant requested to stop. Exercise sessions were followed by body cooling until Tre reached 38.00°C or for a maximum of 10 minutes. Cooling treatments (HC, cold-water immersion (CWI), forearm ice towels (IT), CWI+HC, IT+HC, and passive rest) were performed in a thermoneutral environment (22.4±1.6°C, 32.1±12.3%). Participants then returned to the heat, equilibrated for 10 minutes, and conducted approximately 20 minutes of performance tasks. At 40 minutes post-cooling initiation, Tre was again obtained. Main outcome measures: Heart rate (HR) was measured before (PRE), after (POST) exercise while Tre was additionally measured immediately following performance tasks. Differences between cooling methods were determined using a repeated measures one-way ANOVA with pre-planned dependent t-tests. An a priori alpha level was set at 0.05. Results: POST HR (168±18 beats per minute), and POST Tre (39.17±0.46°C) were similar between groups (p>0.05). Upon initiation of cooling, Tre was also similar across groups (39.35±0.48°C, p>0.05). The cooling rate for passive rest (0.07±0.02°C·min-1) was lower than all other cooling conditions (p0.05) and resulted in lower Tre than all other conditions (p

Major Advisor

Dr. Douglas J. Casa