Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Carl M. Maresh, Lindsay J. DiStefano

Field of Study



Master of Arts

Open Access

Open Access


64 men and women completed a 32 week periodized training program designed to improve lean body mass, muscle size and strength. 37 men, average age 23.6 years (SD ±3.2), height 176.68 cm (SD±6.2), weight 78.9 kg (SD±15.1) and 27 women, average age 22.7 years (SD ±3.4), height 163.9 cm (SD±6.7) weight 64.8 kg (SD±12.4) resistance trained 3 times a week with NSCA certified strength and conditioning specialist, performing a series of planned total body workouts. Injuries were documented in the subjects personalized workout log by the trainers. The injury definition included any complaint of perceived pain in which the subject adjusted the load or sets/reps, ceased the exercise, or discontinued the training session. This research yielded an injury rate of (10.7 injuries per 1,000 exposure hours). Injury rates by exercise revealed squat (4.9 injuries/1,000 exposure hours), hamstring machine (5.0 injuries/1,000 exposure hours), and push press (4.5 injuries/1,000 exposure hours) were the highest values among exercises. The body part most injured was the shoulder (12.01 injuries/1,000 exposure hours). A gender comparison observed a significant difference in injury between men and women (χ²= 7.49, V=0.3) A comparison of injury rates by repetition range (Strength, Hypertrophy, Endurance) observed Strength to be significantly different from Hypertrophy (χ²=5.39, V=0.3) and Endurance (χ²=7.5, V=0.3) workouts. A comparison of repetition ranges from the first half of the research to the second half revealed that although Strength was significantly different from Hypertrophy and Endurance within Month 1-4 (Strength versus Hypertrophy, χ²= 11.28, V=0.4)(Strength versus Endurance, χ²=25.6, V=0.6), there was no significant difference among any repetition range in Month 5-8. Hypertrophy and Endurance were significantly different from Month 1-4 to Month 5-8 (Hypertrophy 1-4 versus Hypertrophy 5-8, χ²=5.94, V=0.3)(Endurance 1-4 versus Endurance 5-8, χ²=16, V=0.5)

Major Advisor

William J. Kraemer