Date of Completion


Embargo Period


Major Advisor

Sandra Chafouleas, Ph. D.

Associate Advisor

Anne Farrell, Ph. D.

Associate Advisor

Susannah Everett, Ph. D.

Field of Study

Educational Psychology


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Summer programs are one of many out-of-school time opportunities offered to students. Out-of-school time programs are valuable to communities as they offer a supervised environment during times when risky behaviors can be prevalent and have potential to promote academic and socio-emotional growth in the nation’s youth (Zief & Lauver, 2006). Although federal mandates highlight a multitude of academic, enrichment, and family engagement objectives, less emphasis is placed on behavioral needs of students in out-of-school time programs (Afterschool Alliance, 2012). Furthermore, evidence suggests that behavioral support is needed in out-of-school time programs (Connecticut Commissioner on Education, 2008); yet, staff are often unequipped with the training to effectively manage the behavior of program participants (Grossman, Campbell & Raley, 2007). This study utilized an intervention including an hour long training and performance feedback delivered by the researcher to teach out-of-school time staff how to implement core elements of positive behavioral interventions and supports. This training package was used to increase the use of specific staff behaviors including reinforcement, specific feedback, and reference to behavior expectations and to concurrently improve student behavioral outcomes. A single-subject multiple baseline design across five participants was employed to evaluate improvements in staff behaviors and changes in student disruptive behaviors. Results indicated moderate effects in staff behaviors including reinforcement to correction ratios, use of specific feedback, and reference to behavior expectations. Inconclusive results were observed with regard to student disruptive behaviors. These results provide preliminary evidence for a training framework incorporating elements of positive behavioral interventions and supports to improve staff behaviors related to behavior management in summer programs. Implications for research and practice and future research directions in this area are discussed.