Date of Completion


Embargo Period



systematic direct observation generalizability theory time-sampling academic engagement

Major Advisor

Sandra Chafouleas

Associate Advisor

Amy Briesch

Associate Advisor

Lisa Sanetti

Field of Study

Educational Psychology


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Data derived from systematic direct observation procedures are utilized frequently by researchers and practitioners, although the generalizability of these data when derived from distinct measurement decisions has rarely and only selectively been subjected to empirical research. This study utilized generalizability theory to examine the extent to which (a) time-sampling methodology, (b) number of simultaneous behavior targets, and (c) individual raters affect the amount of variance in ratings of academic engagement. Raters with similar levels of advanced training in observation techniques viewed and rated video clips of student behavior within a fully-crossed three-facet design. Results indicated that a majority of variance in ratings was attributable to the object of measurement, whereas very high generalizability and dependability coefficients were observed when ratings were averaged over two raters, regardless of the specific measurement procedure utilized.