Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Biological, graphene, graphene oxide, toxicity

Major Advisor

Dr. Challa V. Kumar

Associate Advisor

Dr. Rajeswari Kasi

Associate Advisor

Dr. Ashis Basu

Field of Study



Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Applications nanomaterials in biology resulted in many exciting fields of research such as nanomedicine, nanotheraputics and bionanosensors. The development of these fields highly depends on the nature and stability of nanomaterials in biological fluids. The poor stability of nanomaterials in biological media due to the aggregation and/or agglomeration with the biomolecules, particularly with serum proteins, is a challenging problem. Conversely, the defined formation of protein corona around the nanomaterials is very useful to improve properties such as cellular uptake and compatibility of the materials. The primary goal of this thesis will be to design and develop methods for biologically stable, nontoxic nanomaterials. In specific, the project is designed to biofunctionalize 2D nanolayers such as graphene and use the resulting materials in biology. The initial aims of this study was focused on the utility of graphene as a platform for the design of ‘stable–on-the-table’ biomaterials using the well-established techniques in our lab. The developments in this study will lead to the engineering of enzymatic biofuel cells with improved power density and sustainability. The second part of the project is to produce graphene in large quantities, in aqueous media using proteins as exfoliators. The produced graphene, called biographene, was characterized and used to evaluate the protein binding capabilities. Finally, graphene and other 2D analogues, such as Boron nitride (BN), Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) and Zirconium phosphate (ZrP), will be exfoliated in animal serum. Production and characterization of the layered materials in serum from bovine, porcine, chicken, rat, human and so on will be executed and the in vivo and in vitro toxicity will be tested for specific samples.