Date of Completion


Embargo Period



retention, job satisfaction, attrition, organizational culture

Major Advisor

Stephanie M Mazerolle

Associate Advisor

Craig Denegar

Associate Advisor

Laura Burton

Associate Advisor

Jennifer McGarry

Associate Advisor

William Pitney

Field of Study



Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Background: Recent employment data in collegiate athletic training have demonstrated departure trends among males and females. These trends have been hypothesized to relate to issues of work-life balance. However, work-life balance is only one factor in a myriad of issues. Due to the complex nature of the work-life interface a multilevel examination is needed to better understand the precipitators of departure.

Purpose: Examine factors that may influence collegiate athletic trainers’ job satisfaction and career intentions via multilevel examination of the work-life interface and validate the professional identity and values scale (PIVS) among an athletic trainer population.

Study Design: Mixed methods, cross-sectional study

Methods: Athletic trainers employed in NCAA Division I, II, III or NAIA colleges or universities (n = 299, 56.5% female, 43.5% male). Participants responded to an online questionnaire consisting of demographic questions, nine Likert scale surveys, and open ended questions during Phase I. Job Satisfaction Scores (JSS) and Intention to Leave Scores (ITLS) served as the dependent variables and factors from individual, organizational, and sociocultural levels were utilized as independent factors. Hierarchical regression analysis was run to determine predictability of factors and an ROC curve was utilized to determine cutoff values for scales. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted during Phase II. Qualitative data analysis utilized principles of general inductive approach. Credibility was maintained using peer review and multiple analyst triangulation.

Results: Exploratory factor analysis reduced the PIVS survey from 32 to 20 items and revealed six factors. Independent variables explained 68.5% of the variance in JSS. ROC curve analysis revealed cutoff scores on multiple scales indicating desired outcomes on JSS and ITLS. Qualitative themes linked to individual level factors included: Athletic Identity, Intrinsic Motivation, and Conscientiousness & Extraversion. Organizational level factor themes included: Inadequate Staff Size, Inequity between Hours and Salary, and Perceived Work Schedule Autonomy. Traditional Gender Ideologies and Egalitarian Gender Ideologies

Conclusions: A combination of individual, organizational, and sociocultural level factors were able to best predict ITLS and JSS among collegiate athletic trainers. Establishing cutoff values on several scales provides a potential objective tool organizations can utilize in workplace retention strategies.